Although causality has not been founded for these associations, systemic21 and local22,23 factors have already been proposed to describe them. For pancreatic tumor, however, diabetes can be a consequence of the cancer, rather than a cause, 24 even though exclusion of initial follow-up data didn’t weaken the hazard ratios in this study. On the other hand with some previous research of the incidence of prostate malignancy, however, we didn’t find a significant inverse association of diabetes with the incidence of loss of life from prostate tumor, although our confidence intervals were compatible with the chance estimates reported previously.25 Aside from cancers, we observed strong positive associations of diabetes with deaths from digestive and renal diseases and infectious diseases.Wei Zhou, Liang-Wu Fu, Stephanie C. Tjen-A-Looi and Peng Li of the UCI Section of Medicine participated in the scholarly research, which was funded by the National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute, and the Larry K. Dodge Endowed Seat. The Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine in the UCI School of Medicine is focused on scientific analysis and education in the wide field of complementary and alternative medicine. The center, which was founded in early 2000 through a gift from Henry and Susan Samueli, is dedicated to general public and professional education and scientific study on the usage of complementary and integrative approaches in wellness and prevention and also health care.